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In this study, researchers designed laboratory experiment to observe participants' aggression, and crime rate, demographic statistics were analyzed. The experiment results supported the culture of honor theory that the aggression is a defense mechanism which is rooted in the herding cultural origin for most the southerners.

Quantitative statistics of cultural products revealed that public media in western countries promote more individualistic components than East-Asian countries. For example, when thinking of mother, the brain region related to self-concept showed significant activation in Chinese, whereas no activation observed in Westerners.

These consist of culturally derived ideas and practices that are embodied, enacted, or instituted in everyday life. In it, they refer to the mutually constitutive nature of culture and individual as a "culture cycle. The first "I" concerns how an individual thinks about and expresses itself. Studies show that in the United States, individuals are more likely think of him or herself as "independent", "equal", and "individualistic".

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Individuals have characteristics that are consistent across time and situation. When asked to describe themselves, Americans are likely to use adjectives to describe their personalities, such as "energetic", "friendly", or "hard-working". In Japan, studies show that individuals are more likely to think of themselves as "obligated to society", "interdependent", and "considerate". The self is adaptable to the situation. Japanese individuals are therefore more likely to describe themselves in relation to others, such as "I try not to upset anyone," or "I am a father, a son, and a brother.

Interactions with other people and products reinforce cultural behaviors on a daily basis. Stories, songs, architecture, and advertisements are all methods of interaction that guide individuals in a culture to promote certain values and teach them how to behave. In the US, no-smoking signs focus on individual action by simply saying "No Smoking".

These signs reflect underlying cultural norms and values, and when people see them they are encouraged to behave in accordance with the greater cultural values. The next layer of culture is made up of the institutions in which everyday interactions take place. These determine and enforce the rules for a society and include legal, government, economic, scientific, philosophical, and religious bodies. Institutions encourage certain practices and products while discouraging others. In Japanese kindergartens, children learn about important cultural values such as teamwork, group harmony, and cooperation.

During "birthday month celebration," for example, the class celebrates all the children who have birthdays that month.

This institutional practice underscores the importance of a group over an individual. In US kindergartens, children learn their personal value when they celebrate their birthdays one by one, enforcing the cultural value of uniqueness and individualism. Everyday institutional practices such as classroom birthday celebrations propagate prominent cultural themes. John and Beatrice Whiting, along with their research students at Harvard University , developed the "Whiting model" for child development during the s and s, which specifically focused on how culture influences development.

The Whitings coined the term "cultural learning environment", to describe the surroundings that influence a child during development. This results in maintenance systems i. These factors inform learned behavior, or progressive expressive systems that take the form of religion, magic beliefs, ritual and ceremony, art, recreation, games and play, or crime rates. Many researchers have expanded upon the Whiting model, [35] and the Whiting model's influence is clear in both modern psychology and anthropology.

Inner Culture - Inter Culture - Outer Culture

According to an article by Thomas Weisner in the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology , "All these [more recent] approaches share a common intellectual project: to take culture and context deeply and seriously into account in studies of human development. While self-enhancement is a person's motivation to view themselves positively, self-improvement is a person's motivation to have others view themselves positively.

The distinction between the two modes of life is most evident between independent and collectivistic cultures. Some strategies employed when self-enhancing often include downward social comparison , compensatory self-enhancement, discounting, external attributions and basking in reflected glory. This motivation is often derived from a desire to not lose face and to appear positively among social groups. A main distinction to understand when looking at psychology and culture is the difference between individualistic and collectivistic cultures.

People from an individualistic culture typically demonstrate an independent view of the self; the focus is usually on personal achievement. Each representation is at either end; thus, some members of individualistic cultures may hold collectivistic values, and some collectivistic individual may hold some individualist values. The concepts of collectivism and individualism show a general idea of the values of a specific ethnic culture but should not be juxtaposed in competition. These differences in values across cultures suggests that understanding and expressing empathy may be manifested differently throughout varying cultures.

This created four types of empathy to further examine: 1 dispositional intellectual empathy; 2 dispositional empathic emotion; 3 experienced intellectual empathy; and 4 experienced empathic emotion.